There has been some loosely organized comments regarding the possibility of using Homomorphic Encryption to achieve a new sort of anonymity for Bitcoin.
How Can This Be Used For Bitcoin?
Presumably, we can encrypt the values of bitcoin outputs, making the actual cash flows invisible to the public. It would be in essence similar to a cash economy where all transactions are conducted using sealed envelopes. The public would we aware that a transaction took place, but the amount would be invisible. What is required though is a special sort of Homomorphic Encryption
1) simple arithmetic must be possible on the HE’d outputs (this is at this time strongly supported in theory)
2) the HE’d outputs must be visible to the recipient ie. decryptable with their public key
How Would This Technique Achieve Anonymity?
Using this basic technique it would be impossible for anyone to tell what the balances of accounts may be at any point in the blockchain. It would be fairly easy to confuse auditors and passive surveillance operations by making many small transactions to feint attempts at detecting fund transfers.
Is this different than Mixers?
Technologies such as Zerocoin achieve similar but qualitatively different results. These techniques may be used in conjunction with Homomorphicly Encrypted Outputs.